A Traveler’s Handbook: Algeria Under French Rule
The French invaded and captured Algiers in 1830. A combination of violence from the conquest and disease epidemics caused the indigenous Algerian population to decline by nearly one-third from 1830 to 1872.
Between 1825 and 1847, 50,000 French people emigrated to Algeria, but the conquest was slow, because of intense resistance from such people as Emir Abdelkader, Cheikh Mokrani, Cheikh Bouamama, the tribe of Ouled Sid Cheikh, Ahmed Bey and Fatma N’Soumer. And the conquest did not cover all of the current territory of Algeria until the early 20th century when the last of the Tuareg people were conquered in 1920.
Meanwhile, the French made Algeria an integral part of France. Tens of thousands of settlers mainly from Spain and Italy, with some others from France and Malta moved in to farm the Algerian coastal plain and occupied significant parts of Algerian cities.
Starting from the end of the 19th century, people of European descent in Algeria (or natives like Spanish people in Oran), as well as the native Algerian Jews (classified as Sephardi Jews), became full French citizens.